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Design of Anchors, Embedments, and Foundations to Resist Horizontal and Vertical Forces

February 14–15, 2019

Instructor: Alexander Newman, P.E., F.ASCE

Purpose and Background

The first part of the seminar explores the complexities of designing anchor bolts embedded in concrete, which used to be uncomplicated. The building codes contained simple design formulas, and the procedures were rather straightforward. Today, the International Building Code (IBC) includes a table of the allowable service load capacities for embedded bolts and a simple interaction formula for combined shear and tension. However, the listed anchor capacities are limited, and they are based on uncommonly large edge distances and spacing of the anchors. For strength design, IBC references Appendix D of ACI 318, which contains a complex and difficult to follow design methodology; IBC further modifies some of its provisions. Since the introduction of ACI 318 Appendix D in 2002, its design approach changed drastically in every subsequent edition, attesting to the rapidly evolving state of the art in this area. Not surprisingly, design of anchor bolts has become one of the most debated topics in structural engineering. Many challenges have been reported in trying to use Appendix D to design anchor bolts for shear and tension in practical applications.

The difficulties of meeting the new code provisions are particularly acute in metal building systems, where the primary frame columns often exert large lateral reactions on the foundations. The traditional anchor bolt designs that were used in these common structures for generations no longer conform to the current code provisions. In many cases, other concrete embedments must be used instead, but these are often unfamiliar to many designers and contractors. The presentation provides an in-depth coverage of the new design methodologies and explains how they affect the traditional practices of designing and placing anchor bolts. Many design examples immediately useful in practical design illustrate the discussion.

The second part of the seminar is devoted to the design of foundations to resist horizontal and vertical forces. Such foundations are needed for metal building systems and other rigid-frame structures that exert horizontal reactions on their supports. Another challenge designing foundations for the forces of uplift affects these and many other lightweight structures. The seminar fills the knowledge void by exploring the most common design solutions for such foundations. Among them are tie rods, hairpins, and many other systems, such as slabs with edge haunches and moment-resisting foundations. The final topic covers strengthening existing anchors, embedments and foundations to resist horizontal and uplift forces.

The audience is encouraged to ask questions throughout the presentation, and the seminar concludes with the final Questions and Answers opportunity.

Seminar Benefits

  • Explore the complexities of code provisions dealing with anchor bolt design, including those of IBC and ACI 318 Appendix D. Find out which long-used practices for frame anchorage in pre-engineered metal buildings need to be changed
  • Work through a number of design examples illustrating practical solutions for today's code requirement
  • Find out how to design anchors and foundations for the forces of wind uplift
  • Examine the design methodology for various types of foundations subjected to horizontal column reactions
  • Learn about the effects of column base fixity on foundation design

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of this course the participants will be able to design anchor bolts, embedments, and foundations to resist horizontal and vertical column reactions. The instruction will utilize a combination of lecture, working through many design examples, answering questions, and refreshing the discussion through a short post-seminar exam.

Assessment of Learning Outcomes

Students achievement of the learning outcomes will be assessed through a series of problem-solving design examples, class discussion during the presentation of each major topic, and case studies.

Special Feature

Each participant will receive a copy of the book Foundation and Anchor Design Guide for Metal Building Systems by Alexander Newman (McGraw-Hill, 2013).

Who Should Attend?

Structural and civil engineers seeking to broaden their knowledge of designing anchors, embedments, and foundations to resist horizontal and vertical forces. Despite the technical topic the instruction is kept enjoyable and easy to follow.

Seminar Outline | 1.4 CEUs

Day 1: 8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

  • Introduction: Structures that impose horizontal and vertical forces on supports
  • Challenges of designing anchors, embedments and foundations for metal building systems and similar structures
  • Design of anchor bolts for buildings
  • Anchor bolts for highway posts, sign poles, transmission pole structures
  • Adhesive anchors

Day 2: 8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.

  • Concrete embedments (shear lugs, a newly developed Newman lug, recessed column base, others)
  • Design of foundations to resist horizontal and vertical forces (including design examples)
  • Isolated column footings under uplift conditions
  • Some specifics of foundation design for metal building systems
  • Tie rods
  • Hairpins
  • Moment-resisting foundations
  • Mats
  • Slabs with haunch
  • Trench footings
  • Deep foundations
  • Strengthening existing anchors, embedments and foundations to resist horizontal and vertical forces
  • Conclusion, final Q&A
  • Post-course test
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